Research of Types of Learned Helplessness of Future Specialists in Foreign Philology
The purpose is to conduct empirical research and theoretically substantiate the types of learned helplessness of future specialists in foreign philology in the context of educational and professional training. The respondents of the empirical research are graduates of the final years of study: students of the fourth year – Bachelor’s degree seekers and students of the second year – Master’s degree seekers, the total number of 432 individuals (M=24.23; SD=±3.08; Me=24; Mo=22). The respondents were majoring in a single or double specialty. Methods. Valid and reliable psychodiagnostic tools that have been adapted and tested were used: “Attributional Style Questionnaire” (ASQ) (Peterson et al., 1982); Ehlers’ questionnaire “Motivation for Achieving Success and Avoiding Failures” (MASAF) (Elers, 2002); the questionnaire “Level of subjective control” (LSC) (Bazhin et al., 1984); Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) (Zung, 1965). Results. The provided descriptive statistics confirms that there are no statistically significant differences between the obtained empirical data and the results of similar measurements. Eighteen statistically significant correlations (р<.050; р<.010) of attributive style parameters with independent variables were found: motivation for achieving success, motivation for avoiding failures, level of depression, level of subjective control in educational and professional activities, areas of success, areas of failure. It was established that the level of depression (LD) has the strongest correlations with the attributional style scales: permanence of the bad (R=.189; p<.010), pervasiveness of the bad (R=.221; p<.010) and personalization of the bad (R =.185; p<.010), which gave grounds to consider depressive states as the most dangerous in the formation of learned helplessness. Cluster analysis using the k-means method revealed four types of learned helplessness of future specialists in foreign philology: “Depressive learned helplessness” (cluster 1, n=31; 13.36%), “Avoidant learned helplessness” (cluster 2, n=75; 32.33%), “Optimistic learned helplessness” (cluster 3, n=68; 29.31%), “Uncontrolled learned helplessness” (cluster 4, n=58; 25.00%). Discussion and сonclusions. It was substantiated that the types of learned helplessness are personal formations that were manifested in a high level of depression, the dominance of pessimistic parameters of the attributional style of behavior, a high level of motivation for avoiding failures, a low level of motivation for achieving success, and low/lack of subjective control of the events of educational and professional activities. The appropriateness of implementing the obtained results in the educational and scientific processes of training future specialists in the socionomic profile was empirically clarified and theoretically substantiated.
Bazhin, E. F., Golyinkina, E. A., & Etkind, L. M. (1984). Oprosnik urovnya sub’ektivnogo kontrolya (USK) [Questionnaire of the level of subjective control (LSQ)]. Psihologicheskiy zhurnal – Psychological Journal, 3, 152-16 http://base.psy.spbu.ru/index.php/klass1/sredstva-psikhodiagnostiki/item/91-oprosnik-urovnya-sub-ektivnogo-kontrolya-usk
Blynova, O., Derevianko, S., Ivanova, O., Popovych, I., & Estay Sepulveda, J. G. (2022). Professional relevance of potential labor emigrants. Revista Notas Históricas y Geográficas, 29, 88–106. https://www.revistanotashistoricasygeograficas.cl/index.php/nhyg/article/view/435
Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879–889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006Elers, T. (2002). Motivation for Achieving Success and Avoiding Failures. URL: http://um.co.ua/14/14-5/14-58142.html
Hartigh, L. D., Meerhoff, R. A., Van Yperen, N. W., Neumann, N. D., Brauers, J. J., Frencken, W. G., Emerencia, A., Hill, Y., Platvoet, S., Atzmueller, M., Lemmink, K. A., & Brink M. S. (2022). Resilience in sports: a multidisciplinary, dynamic, and personalized perspective. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2022.2039749
Hill, K. J., & Larson, L. M. (1992). Attributional style in the reformulated learned helplessness model of depression: Cognitive processes and measurement implications. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 83–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01172958
Klibais, Т. (2021). Spetsyfika stanovlennia atrybutyvnoho styliu doroslykh yak resursnoho potentsialu osobystosti [The specificity of the formation of adults’ attributional style as a resource potential of a person]. Visnyk Lvivskoho universytetu. Seriia psykholohichni nauky – Bulletin of Lviv University. Psychological sciences series, 10, 91–96. https://doi.org/10.30970/PS.2021.10.13
Leighton, K. N., & Terrell, H. K. (2020). Attributional Styles. In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Shackelford, T.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_1779
Liu, C., & Bates, T. C. (2014). The structure of attributional style: Cognitive styles and optimism–pessimism bias in the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 79–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.03.022
Malimon, L. Ya., & Duchyminska, T. I. (2015). Psykholohiia osobystisnoï bezporadnosti studentiv [Psychology of students’ personal helplessness]. Lutsk: Vezha-Druk URL: http://evnuir.vnu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/10128
Miller, W. R., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned Helplessness, Depression, and the Perception of Reinforcement. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 7–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(76)90039-5
Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. T., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01173577
Popovych, I. Blynova, O. Zhuravlova, A., Toba, M., Tkach, T., & Zavatska, N. (2020a). Optimization of development and psycho-correction of social expectations of students of foreign philology. Revista Inclusiones, 7(SI), 82–94. http://www.revistainclusiones.org/index.php/inclu/article/view/1657
Popovych, I., Borysiuk, A., Semenov, O., Semenova, N., Serbin, I., Reznikova, O. (2022а). Comparative analysis of the mental state of athletes for risk-taking in team sports. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 22(4), 848–857. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2022.04107
Popovych, I., Halian, I., Lialiuk, G., Chopyk, R., Karpenko, Ye., & Melnyk, Yu. (2022b). Research of young female handball players’ self-actualizing mental states. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 22(7), 1599–1607. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2022.07201
Popovych, I., Hoi, N., Koval, I., Vorobel, M., Semenov, O., Semenova, N., & Hrys, A. (2022c). Strengthening of student youth’s mental health using play sports. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 22(6), 1384-1395. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2022.06174
Popovych, I., Semenov, O., Hrys, A., Aleksieieva, M., Pavliuk, M., Semenova, N. (2022d). Research on mental states of weightlifters’ self-regulation readiness for competitions. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 22(5), 1134–1144. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2022.05143
Popovych, I., Zavatskyi, V., Tsiuniak, O., Nosov, P., Zinchenko, S., Mateichuk, V., Zavatskyi, Yu., & Blynova, O. (2020b). Research on the Types of Pregame Expectations in the Athletes of Sports Games. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(1), 43–52. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.01006
Radul, V., Stryzhakov, A., Hornar, I., Radul, O., & Tkachenko, O. (2022). Research of future masters of pedagogy’s socio-professional activity. Amazonia Investiga, 11(56), 18–27. https://doi.org/10.34069/AI/2022.56.08.2
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0092976
Rudina, L. M. (2002). Test atrybutyvnykh styliv / TAS [Test of attributional styles / TAS]. URL: http://testik.com.ua/test-atrybutyvnyh-styliv-tas-l-mrudina/
Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death. San Francisco, CA: Freeman. https://archive.org/details/helplessnessonde00seli
Siefken, K., Junge, A., & Laemmle, L. (2019). How does sport affect mental health? An investigation into the relationship of leisure-time physical activity with depression and anxiety. Human Movement, 20, 62–74. https://doi.org/10.5114/hm.2019.78539
Titova Grandchamp, V. A., Gordeeva, T. O., & Sychev, O. A. (2021). Optimistic Attributional Style as a Predictor of Well-Being: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Gratitude and Savoring the Moment. Psychol Russ, 14(3), 50–67. https://doi.org/10.11621/pir.2021.0304 PMID: 36733544; PMCID: PMC9888052
Tsymbal, S. V. (2019). Enhancing students’ confidence and motivation in learning English with the use of online game training sessions. Information Technologies and Learning Tools, 71(3), 227–235. https://doi.org/10.33407/itlt.v71i3.2460
Tsymbal, S. V. (2017). Overcoming language anxiety among the English language learners: psycho-pedagogical aspect. Science and Education, 7, 102–106.
Zung, W. W. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01720310065008
Authors who publish with scientific journal agree to the following terms:
• All scientific papers may be freely copied and distributed on any medium and in any format, provided that the references to the initial data of the scientific work are indicated.
• Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed Creative Commons Attribution License .
• Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non- exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (institutional repository, your website, monograph), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.